Cooling and Coolants

The features which coolants must have:

They must evaporate and liquefy under the applicable pressures.

Its evaporation temperature must be low.

Chemical dissolution and burning must not happen. Also, they must not be toxic and react to the touch with the metal surfaces.

They must work under the low powers.

Their cost must be low and provided easily.

They must work under the low powers.

They must oxidate the pipe which they are in.

Which coolants are used most in the cooling systems with Freon:

In these procedures, storage spaces or living spaces are cooled by means of conveying the heat from the source in a low temperature to the environment in a high temperature. The heat normally moves from the high temperature to the low temperature. Therefore, insulation has a big importance on the procedures carried out. Therefore, insulation materials with low heat transmission coefficient are used. Polyurethane is the most important thing used frequently in today’s systems. Insulation is used to protect the low temperature in the cooled space and to reduce the energy and the power required to reach the low temperature. The working principle of the cooling cycle was mathematically defined by Sami Carnot with a heat machine in 1824. The most general cooling systems use the cycle based on the heat pump with phase change, also, absorbing heat pumps are used in most of the procedures.

R401A

This is a zeotropic mixture consisting of R22, R124 and R152a (respectively 52/33/15 % in terms of weight) and considered as an alternative for R12. This is a final alternative, because it contains HCFC and this may be used until 2030.

R402A

This is a zeotropic mixture consisting of R22, R125 and R290 (respectively 38/60/2 % in terms of weight) and considered as an alternative for R502. This is a final alternative, because it contains HCFC and this may be used until 2030.

R404A

This is a zeotropic mixture consisting of R125, R134a and R143a (respectively 44/4/52 % in terms of weight) and considered as an alternative for R502. This is a final alternative, because it contains HCFC and this may be used until 2030.

R407A / R407B / R407C

They are zeotropic mixtures consisting of R32, R125 and R134a (respectively 20/40/40 %, 10/70/20 % and 23/25/52 % in terms of weight) and considered as an alternative for R502.

R410A

This is an azeotropic mixture consisting of R32 and R125 (respectively 50/50 % in terms of weight) and considered as an alternative for R22. Its theoretical features are not as good as R22. However, the feature of heat transmission is fairly good. The system must be redesigned for the R22-R410A conversion. If this change is made, the system efficiency will be 5 % better compared to R22. The high greenhouse effect is its biggest disadvantage.

R500

R500 is an azeotropic mixture consisting of R12 and R152a. The mixture rate in terms of weight is 73.9 % for R12 and 26.2 % for R152a. It is used as an alternative for R12 at a low rate. Compared to R12, it has better COP (Coefficient of Performance) value and 10-15 % higher volumetric cooling capacity.

R502

R502 is an azeotropic mixture consisting of R22 and R115. The mixture rate in terms of weight is 48.8 % for R22 and 51.2 % for R115. This is mostly used in refrigerated transport and commercial refrigeration equipment. Its manufacture has been stopped, because it contains CFC. It has a volumetric cooling capacity at low temperatures. Between -20,-40°C, it is 1-7 % higher than R22. Depending on the working conditions, COP value is 5-15 % lower than R22.

R507

R507 is an accepted alternative for R502 and consisting of R125 and R134a (respectively 50/50 % in terms of weight).

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